Very little research exists on children who are deaf and diverse. However, we are able to examine the existing research that has been done with children who have disabilities and children who are English Language Learners (ELLs) from the general education setting, and apply that to students who are deaf and diverse. Obviously, the real need lies in evidence-based research with children who are deaf and diverse in order for us to identify effective strategies to use with this unique population of learners.

The documents below are works of graduate students who’ve attempted to answer questions of how to better serve deaf students with disabilities. The ELL references provided are from existing research aimed to identify best-practices and evidence-based strategies used with children who are ELLs.

Deaf Students with Disabilities

Attention Deficit Disorder

Adobe PDFClassroom strategies

Barkley, R.A. (1990). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford.*

Bender, W. (1997). Understanding ADHD: A practical guide for teachers and parents. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.*

DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (1994). ADHD in the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies. New York: Guilford Press.*

DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2002). Interventions for attention problems. In M. R. Shinn, H. M. Walker, & G. Stoner (Eds.), Interventions for academic and behavior problems II: Preventive and remedial approaches (pp. 913-938). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.*

Hallowell, E. (1994). Driven to distraction: Recognizing and coping with attention deficit disorder from childhood through adulthood. Tappan, NJ: Simon & Schuster.*

Jensen, P. S., Martin, D., & Cantwell, D. P. (1997). Comorbidity in ADHD: Implications for research, practice, and DSM-IV. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1065-1079.*

Kelly, D., Forney, J. & Parker-Fisher, S. (1998). Evaluating and managing attention deficit disorder in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 138(4), 349-357.*

Kelly, D., Forney, J. & Parker-Fisher, S. (1998). The challenge of attention deficit disorder in children who are deaf or hard of hearing. American Annals of the Deaf, 138(4), 343-348.*

Mitchell, T. & Quittner, A. (1996). Multimethod study of attention and behavior problems in hearing-impaired children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 25(1), 83-96.*

Rief, S. F. (1997). The ADD/ADHD checklist: An easy reference for parents and teachers. Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.*

Robelia, B. (1997). Tips for working with ADHD students of all ages. Journal of Experimental Education, 20 (1), 51-53.*

Schnittjer, C. & Hirshoren, A. (1981). The prevalence of behavior problems in deaf children. Psychology in the Schools, 18 (1), 67-72.*

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Adobe PDFThinking out of the Box

Adobe PDF Accommodations & Modifications

Easterbrooks, S.R. & Handley, C.M. (2005). Behavior change in a student with a dual diagnosis of deafness and pervasive developmental disorder: A case study. American Annals of the Deaf, 150(5). Retrieved from ProQuest database.*

Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center. (2008). Odyssey autism issue: When deafness & autism coexist in children. 9(1).*

Malandraki, G.A. & Okalidou, A. (2007). The application of PECS in a deaf child with autism: A case study. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 22(1). Retrieved from ProQuest Database.*

Rhodes, A. & Vernon, M. (2009). Deafness and autistic spectrum disorders. American Annals of the Deaf, 154(1). Retrieved from ProQuest database.*

Steigler, L. (2007). Discovering communicative competencies in a nonspeaking child with autism. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 400-413.*

Comprehensive Disabilities

Gallaudet Research Institute. (2005).Regional and national summary report of data from the 2004-2005 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Youth*

Guardino, C (2008) Identification and placement for deaf students with multiple disabilities: Choosing the path less followed. In American Annals of the Deaf (volume 153, No. 1) (pp55-64)*

Naiman, D (1982). Educational programming for hearing impaired mentally retarded adolescents. In D. Tweedle and E. H. Shoyer (Eds.), The multi-handicapped hearing impaired: Identification and instruction (pp148-161). Washington, DC: Gallaudet College.*


Adobe PDFSocial Interactions & Communication Opportunities

Adobe PDF Social and Communication Barriers

Bourgquin, E. & Sauerburger, D. (2005). Teaching deaf-blind people to communicate and interact with the public: critical issues for travelers who are deaf-blind. RE:view, 37(3), 109-116.*

Chen, D. (2004). Young children who are deaf-blind: implications for professionals in deaf and hard of hearing services. The Volta Review, 104(4), 273-284.*

Cloninger, M. & Giangreco, C. (1995). Including students with deaf-blindness in general education classes. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 89(3), 262-6.*

Correa-Torres, S. M. (2008). Communication opportunities for students with deaf blindness in specialized and inclusive settings: A pilot study. RE:view, 39(4), 197-205.*

Correa-Torres, S. M. (2008). The nature of the social experiences of students with deaf-blindness who are educated in inclusive settings. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 102(5), 272-283.*

Engleman, M. D., Griffin, H. C. & Linda, G. W. (1999). A teacher’s guide to communicating with students with deaf-blindness. Teaching Exceptional Children, 31(5), 64.*

Goetz, L. & O’Farrell, N. (1999). Connections: Facilitating social supports for students with deafblindness in general education classrooms. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 93(11), 704-15.*

Ingraham, C. L., Daugherty, K. M. & Gorrafa, S. (1995). The success of three gifted deaf-blind students in inclusive educational programs. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 89(3), 257-61.*

Mar, H. H. & Sall, N. (1995). Enhancing social opportunities and relationships of children who are deaf-blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 89(3), 280-6.*

Moller, K. & Danermark, B. (2007). Social recognition, participation, and the dynamic between the environment and personal factors of students with deafblindness. American Annals of the Deaf, 152(1), 42-55.*

The National Consortium on Deaf-Blindness (NCDB). (2008). 2007 National child count of children and youth who are deaf-blind. Monmouth: NCDB, Teaching Research Division.*

Vervloed, M. P., Van Dijk, R. J., Knoors, H. & Van Dijk, J. P. (2006). Interactions between the teacher and the congenitally deaf-blind child. American Annals of the Deaf, 151(3), 336-344.*

Developmental Delay

Emotionally/Behaviorally Challenged

Adobe PDFClassroom Strategies

Adobe PDF Effective Classroom Strategies

Bambara, L, Fogt, J., Kern, L. (2002) Class-wide curricular modifications to improve the behavior of students with emotional or behavior disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 27(4), 317-326.*

Burrello, L.C., & Wright, P.T. (Eds.). (1993, Winter). Strategies for inclusion of behaviorally challenging students. Bloomington, IN: Council of Administrators of Special Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 358 654)*

Culpepper, M., Kamps, D., Wendland, M. (2006). Active teacher participation in functional behavior assessments for students with emotional behavior disorders risks in general education classrooms. Behavior Disorders, 31(2), 128-146*

Dice, M.L. (1993). Intervention strategies for children with emotional or behavioral disorders. San Diego, CA: Singular. (264 pages)*

Cohen, B.K. (1980). Emotionally disturbed hearing-impaired children: A review of the literature. American Annals of the Deaf, 125(9), 1040-48.*

Jones, T. & Sinnot, C. (2005). Characteristics of the population of deaf and hard of hearing students with emotional disturbance in Illinois. American Annals for the Deaf,150(3), 268-272.*

Lennan, R.K. (1969). Use of programmed instruction with emotionally disturbed deaf boys. American Annals of the Deaf, 114(5), 906-11.*

Lennan, R.K. (1970). Report on a program for emotionally disturbed deaf boys. American Annals of the Deaf, 115(4), 469-73.*

Meadow, P. K. & Trybus, J. R. (1985). Behavioral and emotional problems of deaf children: An overview. In L. J. Bradford & W. G. Hardy (Eds.), Hearing and hearing impairment (pp. 395-415). New York: Grune & Stratton.*

Zylstra-Owner, S. & Ulissi, S.M. (1981). Conflict resolution training program: Problem solving strategies for hearing impaired students with behavior problems. American Annals of the Deaf, 126, 619-626.*

Learning Disabilities

Adobe PDFBasic Classroom Strategies

Berent, G. P., Samar, V. J. & Parasnis, I. (2000). College teachers’ perceptions of English language characteristics that identify English language learning disabled deaf students. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(4), 342-358.*

Ewing, K. M. & Jones, T. W. (2003). An educational rationale for deaf students with multiple disabilities. American Annals of the Deaf, 148(3), 267-271. Retrieved from ProQuest Education Journals.*

Guardino, C.A. (2008). Identification and Placement for Deaf Students With Multiple Disabilities: Choosing the Path Less Followed. American Annals of the Deaf, 153(1), 55-64. doi: 10.1353/aad.0.0004*

Luckner, J. & Carter, K. (2001). Essential competencies for teaching students with hearing loss and additional disabilities. American Annals of the Deaf, 146(1), 7-15.*

Mauk, G.W. & Mauk, P.P. (1998). Considerations, conceptualizations, and challenges in the study of concomitant learning disabilities among children and adolescents who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 3(1), 15-34.*

Morrow, L. (1985). Teaching self-control to dually diagnosed deaf students: Promising procedures. American Annals of the Deaf, 130(6), 502-507.*

Perigoe, C.B. & Sullivan. (2004). The association method for children with hearing loss and special needs. The Volta Review, 104(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database.*

Pollack, B. J. (1997). Educating children who are deaf or hard of hearing: Additional learning problems. Eric Digest #E548. Eric ID: ED414666.*

Schum, R. (2004). Psychological assessment of children with multiple handicaps who have hearing loss. The Volta Review, 104(4), 237-255.*

Soukup, M. & Feinstein, S. (2007). Identification, assessment, and intervention strategies for deaf and hard of hearing students with learning disabilities. American Annals of the Deaf, 152(1), 56-62.*

Deaf and ELL

Deaf and ELL

Anonymous, What to do when English Language Learners join your classroom. (2010). American Teacher, 94(6), 4.*

Bernhard, J. K., Cummins, J., Campoy, F. I., Ada, A. F., Winsler, A., & Bleiker, C. (2006). Identity texts and literacy development among preschool English Language Learners: Enhancing learning opportunities for children at risk for learning disabilities. Teachers College Record, 108(11), 2380-2405.*

Cannon, J. E., Fredrick, L. D., & Easterbrooks, S. R. (2010). Vocabulary instruction through books read in American Sign Language for English Language Learners with hearing loss. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 31(2), 98-112.*

Christensen, K. M. (1993). A multicultural approach to education of children who are deaf. In K. M. Christensen & G. L. Delgado (Eds.). Multicultural issues in Deafness (pp. 17-27). New York: Longman Publishing Group.*

Cline, T. (1997). Educating for bilingualism in different contexts: Teaching the deaf and teaching children with English as an additional language. Educational Review, 49(2), 151-158.*

Corder, G. (2007). Supporting English Language Learners’ reading in the science classroom. Science Scope, 31(1), 38-41.*

DeLuca, E. (2010). Unlocking academic vocabulary. The Science Teacher, 11(3), 27-32.*

Dreher, M. J. & Gray, J. L. (2009). Compare, contrast, comprehend: Using compare contrast text structures with ELLs in K-3 classrooms. Reading Teacher, 63(2), 132-141.*

Facella, M. A., Rampino, K. M., & Shea, E. K. (2005). Effective strategies for English Language Learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(1), 209-221.*

Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L., Yen, L., McMaster, K., Svenson, E., Yang, N., … King, S. (2001). Developing first-grade reading fluency through peer mediation. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(2), 90-93.*

Gerner de Garcia, B. (1995). ESL applications for Hispanic deaf students. The Bilingual Research Journal, 19(3 & 4), 453-467.*

Hansen, L. (2006). Strategies for ELL success. Science and Children, 43(4), 22-25. Retrieved from
Hart, J. E. (2009).Strategies for culturally and linguistically diverse students with special needs. Preventing School Failure, 53(3), 197-208.*

Lovett, M. W., De Palma, M., Frijters, J., Steinbach, K., Temple, M., Benson, N., & Lacerenza, L. (2008). Interventions for Reading Difficulties: A Comparison of Response to Intervention by ELL and EFL Struggling Readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(4), 333-352. doi: 10.1177/0022219408317859.*

Palmer, B., Zhang, N., Taylor, S., & Leclere, J. (2010). Language proficiency, reading, and the Chinese-speaking English Language Learner: Facilitating the L1-L2 connection. Multicultural Education, 17(2), 44-52.*

Saenz, L. M., Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2005). Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 231-247. Retrieved from*

Schneider, E. & Evers, T. (2009). Linguistic intervention techniques for at-risk English Language Learners. Foreign Language Annals, 42(1), 55-77.*

Simich-Dudgeon, C. (1998). Classroom strategies for encouraging collaborative discussion. Directions in Language and Education, 12, 1-13.*

Teal, W. (2009). Students learning Englishand their literacy instruction in urban schools. The Reading Teacher, 62, 699-704.*

Turner, S. (1996). Meeting the needs of children under five with sensori-neural hearing loss from ethnic minority families. Journal of the British Association of Teachers of the Deaf, 20, 91-100.*

Verma, G. (2008). Using sheltered instruction to teach English Language Learners. Science Scope, 32(3), 56-59. Retrieved from*

Walker-Vann, C. (1998). Profiling Hispanic deaf children. American Annals of the Deaf, 143(1), 46-54.* 

* Full article can be found in the research journal listed within the citation.