## Positive and Negative Integers

### Subject: Mathematics

### Grades : 9-12

**Standard:**Real and Complex Number Systems

**Objective:**

-Students will learn how to add and subtract positive and negative integers.

**Background:**

-This lesson takes place towards the beginning of the first semester. The students are being introduced to algebra tiles and will be shown various methods to adding and subtracting positive and negative integers.

**Materials:**

-Projector

-SmartBoard

-Pre-made color-coded example problems

-Behavior Cards

-Pencils

-Paper

-Calculator

-Algebra Tiles

-Number Line

-Worksheet

**Introduction:**

1.The teacher will display on the SmartBoard an orange background used to review adding and subtracting of positive integers. The students will do

several problems to remind themselves of past material.

2.The teacher will pass out algebra tiles to the students and explain that a small square represents + 1 when it is yellow and-1 when it is red. The

teacher will then display several examples and have the students practice setting them up.

3.The teacher will display the equation-2 + 3 on a green background. The teacher will watch as the students set up the equation using their algebra

tiles. The teacher will then explain that a “red” negative tile and a “yellow” positive tile cancel each other out be cause they equal zero. The

students will make pairs of red and yellow and the remaining tiles are the answer. The teacher and students will work through several examples together.

**Tier 1 (Below Grade Level)**

-The students in tier 1 will work on exploring positive and negative integers using the number line. They will place there finger on one number and then move left or right based on the number they are adding or subtracting. The students will be able to visualize how negative numbers move to the left and positive numbers go to the right.

**Tier 2 (Grade Level Learners)**

-The students in tier 2 will continue solving equations with positive and negative numbers using the algebra tiles. The teacher will ask them to think of real life situations in where they see positive and negative integers. (ex. Gain and loss of yards, temperature).

**Tier 3 (Above Grade Level)**

-The students in tier 3 will use their mathematical skills to continue adding and subtracting positive and negative numbers. The will explore how subtracting a negative number is the same as adding. In addition, they will practice changing a subtraction sign to addition and then finding the opposite sign for the integer.

**Summary:**

-This lesson begins with the teacher reviewing addition and subtraction of positive numbers. The teacher introduces the concept of positive and negative numbers using algebra tiles so the students can visualize how a positive and negative number cancel each other out. The students then split into groups based on their abilities and continue to explore the use of positive and negative numbers. The students in tier 1 use the number line to see that negative numbers are smaller than zero and require you to move to the left, while positive numbers are greater than zero and you must move to the right. The students in tier 2 use the algebra tiles to manipulate groups of a positive and negative to solve. While the kids in tier 3 begin exploring positive and negative numbers on a more mathematical level.

**Assessment:**

-The students will be assessed based on the completion of a worksheet that allows them to demonstrate their knowledge of positive and negative integers. The students will be allowed to use various methods to demonstrate their knowledge based on their individual needs. The results

of the data will determine student readiness to progress to the next level of multiplying and dividing integers.